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Method and application of oil refining

September 29, 2021

The oil refining process mainly includes processes such as crude oil removal, degumming, deacidification, decolorization, deodorization and dewaxing. Oil refining can take different refining steps and control process parameters according to the quality index requirements of the refined oil of different quality levels. The purpose of oil refining is to remove the impurities contained in the crude oil, maintain the biological properties of the oil, and retain or extract useful substances. Oil refining is to selectively remove impurities to remove insoluble solid impurities, peptic impurities, oil-soluble impurities, moisture, etc. contained in crude oil.

Oil refining equipment

The methods of oil refining are roughly divided into three categories: mechanical method (physical method), chemical method and physical chemical method.

Methods and applications of oil refining:


Basic process

Principle of action

Application characteristics

Mechanical law

Precipitation, filtration

Use density difference to settle or filter to remove mechanical impurities

Removal of crude oil; removal of waste clay and catalyst

Centrifugal separation

Use high-speed centrifuge to separate soap feet and oil-water feet

Degumming, desoaping, dehydration, dewaxing fat, etc.

Chemical method

Alkali refining

Neutralization of free fatty acids; partial decolorization; reasonable degumming

All kinds of fats and oils that need to remove free fatty acids


Add acid to remove gum and part of pigment

Need to be physically refined or inferior oil


Hydrodecolorization, deodorization, increase saturation

Palm oil decolorization and deodorization; hardened oil raw material processing

Esterification, oxidation

Esterification deacidification, redox decolorization

Generally used in industrial oil, rice bran oil with high acid value

Physical Chemistry Method


Add water or dilute electrolyte to hydrate phospholipids and separate gums

Phosphorus-containing light-colored oil with an acid value of less than 5, such as soybean oil

Adsorption decolorization

Add adsorbent to remove pigment and gum

The production of high cooking oil and salad oil must be decolorized

Steam distillation

High vacuum direct steam to remove free fatty acids, odor substances, etc.

High acid value oil degummed directly after degumming, deacidification consumes less

Liquid-liquid extraction

Use solvent to remove free fatty acids

Oils with high acid value that cannot be refined by alkali or physically refined

Frozen crystallization, winterization

Frozen crystallization dewaxing or winterization crystallization to separate solid fat

Production of salad oil with wax and solid fat oil

Blended oil refining

Use leaching mixed oil to add alkali to neutralize free fatty acids, centrifugal separation

Cottonseed oil, castor oil, etc. in the extraction workshop