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Influencing factors and control of edible vegetable oil processing quality

July 20, 2021
As the demand for edible vegetable oil continues to increase, the quality and safety of edible vegetable oil has also attracted the attention of consumers. In the actual processing of edible vegetable oil, there are many factors that affect the processing quality of edible vegetable oil, such as oil storage, production and processing, and enterprise quality management. Based on the actual production of edible vegetable oil, this article analyzes the factors affecting the processing quality of edible vegetable oil, and proposes control measures for the processing quality of edible vegetable oil for readers' reference.
Edible vegetable oil
Ⅰ. Analysis of factors affecting the quality of edible vegetable oil
1. Raw materials
Raw materials are the most important part of quality control in the production and processing of edible vegetable oil, and the quality of raw materials directly affects the quality of the final product. The main problems in the raw materials of edible vegetable oil are:
(1) The raw material purchase verification is not in place. The raw materials used in the production and processing of edible vegetable oil are affected by soil, air, irrigation water, etc., and may contain heavy metal pollutants such as mercury, cadmium, lead, etc., as well as organic pollutants such as dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chlorinated biphenyls and so on. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides in the cultivation process can easily lead to excessive residues of oily pesticides and biotoxins. In addition, oil has some mechanical impurities during harvesting and primary processing. These factors will bury hidden quality problems for the production and processing of edible vegetable oil. In reality, some companies have not strictly inspected the quality certification documents of raw materials, nor have they conducted inspections in accordance with food safety standards; some have checked the quality certification documents, but due to the quality knowledge of the inspectors, the quality certification documents marked The batch does not correspond to the batch of the purchased raw material, which is an invalid quality certificate; when the raw material is inspected, due to the knowledge level of the enterprise equipment and the inspectors, the inspection items are incomplete and the inspection results are inaccurate; the enterprises without inspection conditions take into account the cost It does not entrust a qualified inspection agency to conduct inspections.
(2) The storage of raw materials does not meet the requirements. Improper storage of oil will cause mildew and deterioration, resulting in low oil yield, increased acid value, and poor oil quality. The processed oil will have a deep color and smell. The storage conditions must be strictly controlled when the raw materials are stored in the factory. In actual production, especially in some small and medium-sized enterprises, the storage of raw materials is chaotic and the classified storage fails to meet the requirements. For example, the warehouse does not have ventilation facilities, and the temperature and moisture control facilities are not in place. Natural ventilation is used for natural storage, and there is no regular inspection and recording.
(3) Insufficient quality inspection measures for raw materials entering the factory. Some companies judge the quality level of raw materials based on subjective experience and lack technical measures. The survey found that 60% of small oil processing companies do not have inspection equipment, and 30% of medium-sized companies have incomplete inspection equipment and can only inspect some items. The quality of raw materials lacks scientific data support. A few companies use unqualified raw materials to reduce costs. This makes the quality of raw materials difficult. Guarantee, bury hidden quality hazards for the production and processing of edible vegetable oil.
2. Production and processing links
The production and processing of edible vegetable oil is the key to product safety. The main problems are as follows:
(1) The influence of oil. In the process of planting, harvesting, threshing, drying, etc., the oil has been cleaned to different degrees, but due to the limitation of technical conditions, there are still various inorganic and organic impurities, such as sand, bricks, soil, metal, and the roots of raw materials. , Stems, leaves, buds, diseased spots, transformed plasmids and toxic and harmful fungi. The degree of impurity cleaning will directly affect product quality, such as product purity, color, smell, processing technology and oil yield.
(2) The influence of oil refining process. Oil refining is to process a certain quality of oil to be refined into finished oil that meets the quality requirements of the national standard. The oil refining process has a direct impact on the quality indicators of the oil, such as transparency, color, taste, moisture and volatiles, impurities, heating test, acid value, soap content, peroxide value, freezing test, smoke point, etc. Oil quality indicators should be considered comprehensively. Each indicator is not completely independent. Many indicators are interrelated. For example, there is a direct relationship between soap content and taste, peroxide value, acid value and smoke point. The various processes of oil refining are also an integral whole that interacts and cooperates with each other. If a certain process has problems, other processes are also affected. Strengthening the operation of the subsequent process will make up for the shortcomings of the previous process to a certain extent. Therefore, the entire process of oil refining should be based on The factors that cause the unqualified oil to formulate the best processing technology plan. If the color of the finished oil does not meet the requirements, the reasons are as follows: there are more gums before decolorization, and the degumming effect in the degumming process is not good; improper temperature before decolorization produces pigment fixation; various influencing factors (temperature, Pressure, decolorization time, stirring, etc.) control is improper; pigments are produced during the deodorization process. These factors should be combined to adjust the refining process plan to the best, such as modifying the pre-decolorization process to avoid pigment fixation, improving the decolorization process parameters to increase the decolorization effect, strengthening the degumming effect to reduce the gum content of the oil to be decolorized, and adjusting the deodorization parameters.
Refining equipment
(3) The impact of critical control points. The inaccurate determination of key control points and insufficient control points by enterprises will lead to "out-of-control" production and processing. For example, steaming and frying of raw materials in the production and processing of sesame oil by water-substitution method is not used as a key control point, and unstable temperature control causes the product's benzopyrene content to exceed the standard; the palm oil fractionation process is not used as a key control point, which will affect many indicators such as solvent residues. Exceeded.
(4) The influence of production instructions. Some process production operation instructions lack comprehensiveness because the process parameters are formulated without comprehensive consideration of processing principles and processing influencing factors, resulting in inaccurate or incorrect control of specific operations. The operating instructions of each process should be continuously improved and perfected according to the principle of the process and the influencing factors, and its scientific nature should be improved to ensure the quality of the oil.
(5) Lack of quality control during the operation of the processing links, no production operation records, incomplete records, some rely on experience, only relying on experience such as touching, seeing, smelling, etc., so that it is difficult to trace the cause of quality problems, and there is no process improvement. Supported by scientific data, quality control is difficult to achieve.
3. Layout and facilities of processing workshops
The design of the plant and workshop should be based on the production process to prevent and reduce the risk of product contamination; the plant and workshop should be based on the characteristics of the product, production process, production characteristics and the cleanliness requirements of the production process to reasonably divide the operating area, and adopt Effective separation or separation, usually divided into cleaning operation area, quasi-cleaning operation area and general operation area, or cleaning operation area and general operation area, etc. The general operation area should be separated from other operation areas; working clothes should be worn when entering the production and processing operation area. According to the characteristics of the food and the requirements of the production process, special work clothes, such as clothes, pants, shoes, hats, etc. are equipped. The filling area should be separated from other work areas to prevent cross-contamination; the entrance of the filling workshop should be equipped with a changing room suitable for the number of people in the workshop, work clothes and personal clothing and other items should be placed separately; cleanliness requirements such as entering the filling workshop Special overalls should be worn in higher areas. In actual production, some enterprises have unreasonable process layout, cross flow of people and logistics, and high risk of product contamination; the filling area with higher cleanliness requirements is not separated from the general operation area, and the filling is not closed. The filling workshop lacks locker rooms, toilets and facilities, and work clothes are not dedicated to the filling workshop, which can easily cause cross-contamination of products. In terms of equipment and facilities, some companies have outdated equipment, insufficient equipment accuracy, and difficult to control parameters. Some equipment and facilities components and pipelines also use toxic and harmful components and plastic-related products, which affect the quality of grease or make grease plasticizers exceed the standard. Such as: gasket oil-resistant rubber sheet, made of nitrile rubber, which is a copolymer of 1,3-butadiene and acrylonitrile, and is mainly used for the sealing surface of sight glasses under low temperature and low pressure conditions; PTFE Vinyl padding, a small amount of hydrofluoric acid is produced after the decomposition of PTFE; some oil pipelines contain plasticizers, there are more than 100 types of plasticizers, and phthalate compounds are widely used, the softer the plastic The higher the product contains plasticizer.
4. Corporate management
The main problems in business management are:
(1) The quality system construction is not complete enough, and the relevant enterprises have not formulated a complete quality management system in accordance with the provisions of the Food Safety Law.
(2) The implementation of the system is not strict. In the actual production process, the implementation and implementation of relevant enterprises' systems is insufficient, and the enterprise has not set up a management department or is not equipped with professional management personnel. The appraisal mechanism is not sound, and the systems of some enterprises remain on paper and are only used to respond to the appraisal and acceptance of relevant departments. It is in vain and lacks practical guidance.
(3) The concept of modern management is lacking, and information management methods and concepts are not fully utilized to effectively apply it to the improvement of corporate management. It is mainly reflected in the lack of management of the production process, lax quality control, incomplete related records, and inability to trace quality problems, resulting in no guarantee of product quality when leaving the factory.
Ⅱ. Measures to improve the quality of edible vegetable oil
1. Strictly control the quality of raw materials
Food raw materials must be qualified in batches when entering the factory. Check the quality certificate of incoming raw materials, and ensure that the batches inspected in the quality certificate documents correspond to the actual purchased batches; if there is no certificate of conformity, they must carry out self-inspection or entrust a qualified inspection agency to inspect and test items. It should be the factory inspection items specified in the raw material standards; the labeling and marking of the raw materials meet the requirements, and the raw materials entering the factory must record various information and quality conditions of the purchase channels to ensure that the quality of the raw materials of each batch and specification can be traced. The storage conditions of the raw materials meet the specified requirements, classified and tiered, and separated and stored separately; the storage temperature, ventilation, and insect (rat) prevention measures meet the standards; the storage of raw materials should be stored in accordance with the principle of first-in, first-out to avoid excessive storage of raw materials; raw material storage During the period of regular inspections and records, to prevent mildew, germination, insect infestation and pollution, improve the company's own quality inspection system, inspection equipment, and the professional level of the inspectors meet the needs of food safety.
2. Strengthen the control of the production and processing process
Strengthening the control of the production and processing process is the key to ensuring product quality. The following points should be done: (1) Strengthen the pretreatment of oil. The cleaning process should be based on the characteristics of the oil, select the appropriate winnowing and screening, according to the density difference of the oil and impurities, select the winnowing equipment and wind speed, and select the screening equipment and method according to the difference in the size of the oil and the impurity particles. It is necessary to improve equipment and facilities for peeling, crushing, rolling, steaming and frying, and formulate specific processing standards to ensure the quality of each link.
(2) Strengthen the control of oil refining and scientifically formulate key control points for the refining of edible vegetable oils. The key control points of common edible vegetable oil: oil refining is deacidification and deodorization; sesame oil produced by water substitution method is the temperature of frying seeds and the oil is stirred; olive oil is selected as raw material and cold pressed at low temperature; palm (kernel) oil is the separation process . At the same time, enterprises must add more important control links in accordance with the characteristics of the products and equipment conditions to ensure the effective control of each process in the processing and production. The operating instructions for each process point, especially the key control point, must be scientifically formulated based on the control principle of its control point and the influencing factors of the control point. For example, in the process of alkali refining and deacidification of fats, free fatty acids, glycerides and alkalis in fats and oils undergo a series of chemical reactions, among which the main chemical reactions are neutralization, hydrolysis, saponification, etc. The main influencing factors are alkali and its dosage, alkali Liquid concentration, operating temperature, operating time, mixing and stirring, impurity content, separation, washing and drying. The content of the work instruction must be comprehensive and without omissions, and the integrity of the process operation can be guaranteed to ensure the quality of the work. Specific production operators must have comprehensive professional knowledge, proficient operating skills, and a sense of responsibility; the key control point record data must be accurate and comprehensive, so that product quality can be traced, and it is convenient for continuous improvement and improvement of production technology.
3. Standardize the layout of processing workshops and equipment and facilities
The edible vegetable oil processing enterprises should rationally arrange the production and processing workshops according to the varieties and characteristics of the edible vegetable oils, with smooth processes, separate flow of people and logistics; independent filling workshops, closed filling, complete hand washing facilities in the dressing room, and special work clothes. , Work clothes and other clothing and articles are stored separately to avoid cross-contamination; equipment and facilities are regularly maintained and updated in a timely manner to ensure stable operation of equipment and facilities and reliable and accurate parameters; materials used in processing workshops must not release harmful substances to avoid contamination of products; processing equipment and The related materials of the pipeline should not chemically react with the edible vegetable oil, and the related materials in contact with the edible vegetable oil should be food grade to avoid contamination of the product.
4. Strengthen corporate management and establish quality and safety awareness
Only by strengthening corporate management can the level of food quality and safety be improved. It is necessary to establish the concept that safe food is both "produced" and "managed".
(1) The enterprise shall formulate a sound quality management system based on the Food Safety Law and relevant laws and regulations in combination with the actual situation of the enterprise, establish a scientific quality management system and mechanism, and cover the entire process from raw materials, processing, and finished products to the factory. The implementation of the quality management system must be in place, and the standardization and quality of work must be guaranteed by management.
(2) It is necessary to combine modern management models and innovate management systems to meet the management needs of the market economy.
(3) Implement the main responsibilities of enterprises and departments, and stimulate the enthusiasm and initiative of management staff and employees.
(4) Strengthen modern science and technology management, make full use of the role of computers in oil processing, improve the technical level of equipment in oil processing enterprises, form an automatic control system with industrial computers as the core, integrate and optimize information resources in the platform, which is convenient for departments Close cooperation and communication between quality information will expand and enhance the effective management role.
5. Strengthen staff training, improve staff quality
The overall quality of high-level personnel is a key element in the improvement of the quality of edible vegetable oil, and personnel at different levels and positions must be trained in a targeted manner.
(1) Training of laws, regulations and standards. Mainly "Food Safety Law", "National Food Safety Standard Food Production General Hygiene Code", "Food Safety National Standard Edible Vegetable Oil and its Products Production Hygiene Code", "Food Safety National Standard Food Additives Use Standard", "Edible Vegetable Oil Production License Certificate Review Rules, the product standards of edible vegetable oil, and the relevant knowledge of the national management department on food safety, etc. It can not only improve the quality and safety awareness of employees, but also improve the standard production level of the enterprise.
(2) Training of production expertise and technology. Mainly include raw material selection, storage, control operation of key control point parameters, finished product storage, finished product factory inspection training, etc. The training of each link should explain its principles, influencing factors and specific control operation methods.
(3) Training of employees' sense of responsibility. Employees are an integral part of the company. Employees must have the concept of taking the company as their home, perform their duties in their posts, be loyal to their company, consciously maintain the company’s image and interests, abide by the company’s various systems, and proactively ensure food Quality and safety level. Regular training is required for company employees. The combination of internal training and external training not only improves the current technical level of the company, but also enables employees to learn new knowledge and master new technology, and continuously improve the overall quality and level of employees.
Ⅲ. Concluding remarks
Improving the quality of edible vegetable oil requires a source of quality and safety, a scientific production level, a sound quality management system, and the improvement of the overall quality of employees. Qualified raw materials are the prerequisite for ensuring product quality, and strict control of the process flow is the key to ensuring quality. A sound quality management system and the improvement of the safety awareness and quality of employees are the guarantee of quality and safety.